Lindow Man

Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time. Albedo — The amount of solar radiation that is reflected back off a surface. Alum — A chemical compound that can be processed from clays. It has been used for industrial purposes e. Altitude — Height above sea level. Amplitude — The maximum height of a wave crest or depth of a trough. Anglian — One of the glaciations during the last Ice Age, about half a million years ago, when glaciers reached as far south as the Severn—Thames estuaries. Anticline — Upwardly arched folds of Sedimentary rocks put under pressure by movement in the Earth. See syncline Aquifer — One of many types of permeable rock.


Research into glaciation cycles began in the 19th century, but scientists still can’t agree on why ice ages occur. Now there’s new evidence that a cold epoch is in the wings. Those of us who live in the Midwest United States seem to have the worst of both worlds. Hot humid summers, where the temperature often reaches 95 degrees, and cold winters where the mercury can plummet to zero.

Pb dating using the CRS model represents an important means of establishing recent chronologies for sediment and peat deposits, but care must be taken in its use to take into account limitations imposed by sampling and analysis.

However, there is uncertainty in the accuracy and consistency of the methodologies used for dating recent peats. This study compares results from Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles SCPs and natural and anthropogenic fallout radionuclides Pb, Cs and Am used to date three replicate cores from three contrasting sites. Data are used to test the consistency of dating techniques within and between sites, and to assess the impact of local conditions on geochronological results.

There is broad consistency in results, but there is also a significant disagreement between dates in a number of cores, both within and between sites. A relatively dry site that had been affected by past burning and erosion showed the greatest consistency between methods and replicate cores. Wetter, less degraded sites showed least consistency. Using patterns of dis agreement between dating techniques we assess the potential causes of dating inaccuracy.

How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?

Potential of abundant, environmentally harmless energy technology , which already exists My strategy for manifesting that energy event for humanity’s and the planet’s benefit. I w as born in In that same year, I had my cultural and mystical awakenings. During my second year of college, I had my first existential crisis and a paranormal event changed my studies from science to business.

I s till held my energy dreams, however, and in , eight years after that first paranormal event, I had a second one that suddenly caused me to move up the coast from Los Angeles to Seattle, where I landed in the middle of what is arguably the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace.

What does DRPD mean in Unclassified? This page is about the meanings of the acronym/abbreviation/shorthand DRPD in the Miscellaneous field in general and in the Unclassified terminology in particular.

Open bars for orangutans or dashed lines for modern humans with question marks? Interior Borneo and North Borneo are represented separately due to differing human histories. The negative impact of human hunting on remaining orangutan populations probably increased during the colonial period, beginning in the 18th century 10 , At this time, guns generally became more readily available, and the suppression of headhunting made travel and use of forested areas more feasible for local people, increasing hunting pressure in these areas.

In some regions, orangutan skulls were sought as replacements for the human skulls that were no longer available for headhunting rituals There is also documentation of the trade in live orangutans and orangutan body parts beginning at this time and historical commentary that remarks on the disappearance and range contractions of the orangutan in the 18th and 19th century A recent analysis found that, since the colonial period, encounter rates with Bornean orangutans have dropped approximately sixfold Given that this occurred even in areas with little forest disturbance and that there is no evidence to suggest alternative explanations for example, disease , it is plausible that reduced densities in at least some populations of present-day orangutans are the result of hunting

5 Weathering, Erosion, and Sedimentary Rocks

Opt out or contact us anytime Plumes of Methane Katey Walter Anthony had been told to hunt for methane, and she could not find it. As a young researcher at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, she wanted to figure out how much of that gas was escaping from lakes in areas of permafrost thaw. She was doing field work in Siberia in , scattering bubble traps around various lakes in the summer, but she got almost nothing.

Then, that October, the lakes froze over. Plumes of methane that had been hard to spot on a choppy lake surface in summer suddenly became more visible.

Highlights Multiple peat cores dated using SCPs and FRN in variable conditions to test accuracy. SCPs may need more local calibration. Dating more consistent in drier peat, supports suggestions Pb is mobile in wet conditions. Multiple techniques are required for robust chronology in recent peat deposits.

He wore a pointed skin cap of sheepskin and wool , fastened under his chin by a hide thong, and a smooth hide belt around his waist. Additionally, a noose made of plaited animal hide was drawn tight around his neck and trailed down his back. His hair was cropped so short as to be almost entirely hidden by his cap. The acid in the peat, needed for the preservation of a human body, is caused by a bryophyte named Sphagnum. Sphagnum fights against degradation due to resistant phenolic compounds contained in their cell walls.

Examinations and X-rays showed that the man’s head was undamaged, and his heart, lungs and liver were well preserved. The Silkeborg Museum estimated his age as approximately 40 years and height at 1. It is likely that the body had shrunk in the bog. On the initial autopsy report in , doctors concluded that Tollund Man died by hanging rather than strangulation.

The extinction of the woolly mammoth: was it a quick freeze?

First, some preliminary remarks are given: It is the local or global mean height of sea level. How is MSL defined: This definition averages out tidal highs and lows caused by the changing effects of the gravitational forces from the moon and sun”.

This study compares age estimates of recent peat deposits in 10 European ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) bogs produced using the 14 C bomb peak, Pb, Cs, spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), and pollen. At 3 sites, the results of the different dating methods agree well.

A Way of Death It might be argued that lurid stories of human sacrifice were simply propaganda, conjured-up by classical writers to justify Roman actions, but there may well be some truth in them. For instance, at Danebury hillfort, Hampshire, animal and human remains whole bodies and body parts , deposited in disused storage pits, could be the result of sacrifice.

At Glastonbury Lake Village, two roundhouses had a child’s skeleton in the floor, a further seven children had been buried between buildings, and one was found in the peat outside the perimeter palisade. There were no other inhumations, so it seems that these were ritual deposits, though there is no indication of sacrifice. On the other hand four adult skulls, associated with the perimeter, were damaged by sword blows. These might be the heads of sacrificial victims, or they could, possibly, be the heads of vanquished enemies: At any rate, Poseidonius says that he himself saw this spectacle in many places, and that, although at first he loathed it, afterwards, through his familiarity with it, he could bear it calmly.

The heads of enemies of high repute, however, they used to embalm in cedar-oil and exhibit to strangers, and they would not deign to give them back even for a ransom of an equal weight of gold.

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The Toppila Power Station , a peat-fired facility in Oulu , Finland The climate, geography, and environment of Finland favours bog and peat bog formation. Thus, peat is available in considerable quantities. This abundant resource often mixed with wood at an average of 2. Peat provides around 6. Finland classifies peat as a slowly renewing biomass fuel. Also, agricultural and forestry-drained peat bogs actively release more CO2 annually than is released in peat energy production in Finland.

Abstract. Dating recent peat deposits (i.e., past } yrs of peat accumulation) has emerged as an important yet challenging task for estimating rates of organic matter accumulation and atmospheric pollutant deposition in peatlands.

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Holocene Epoch

See Article History Alternative Titles: The sediments of the Holocene, both continental and marine, cover the largest area of the globe of any epoch in the geologic record, but the Holocene is unique because it is coincident with the late and post-Stone Age history of mankind. The influence of humans is of world extent and is so profound that it seems appropriate to have a special geologic name for this time.

The term Holocene was proposed in and was formally submitted to the International Geological Congress at Bologna, Italy, in It was officially endorsed by the U.

Dating recent peat deposits (i.e., past yrs of peat accumulation) has emerged as an important yet challenging task for estimating rates of organic matter accumulation and atmospheric pollutant deposition in .

February 7, ; Revised: November 17, ; Revised: January 12, ; Revised: January 12, ; Accepted: February 29, Author Affiliations Merritt R. Geological Survey Middlefield Rd. Due to their ombrotrophic nature and the tendency for Sphagnum-derived peat to have high cation exchange capacity, peatlands are ideal archives of atmospheric pollution. However, efforts to establish depth-age relationships in peats are complicated by the difficulty of dating deposits reliably.

Assumptions underlying the techniques available for dating peat deposits often are poorly understood and generally untested. We outline the approaches used to establish depth-age relationships in peat chronologies, including brief descriptions of the theory, assumptions, methodology, and logistics of each technique. We include both continuous dating methods i. We also describe the relatively new radiocarbon application of wiggle matching and use hypothetical data to highlight the potential of this developing technique for dating recent peat.

Until the uncertainty associated with each of these dating approaches is clarified, we recommend employing multiple techniques to allow for corroboration between different methods.

Tollund Man

The Toppila Power Station , a peat-fired facility in Oulu , Finland The climate, geography, and environment of Finland favours bog and peat bog formation. Thus, peat is available in considerable quantities. This abundant resource often mixed with wood at an average of 2. Peat provides around 6. Finland classifies peat as a slowly renewing biomass fuel. Also, agricultural and forestry-drained peat bogs actively release more CO2 annually than is released in peat energy production in Finland.

Turetsky et al., DATING RECENT PEAT composition in peatlands may be retarded by high acidity, low oxygen supply at depth, low nutrient availability, and/or poor substrate quality for microbial.

There are probably millions of mammoths buried in the permafrost of Siberia alone. The mammoths are found with a wide variety of other mammals, large and small, many of which were grazers. They lived in a grassland environment with a long growing season, mild winters, very little permafrost, and a wide diversity of plants—quite different from the climate in the region today.

The mammoths and other animals colonised the region after the Flood during the ice age. They were buried in the dust storms that deposited the loess blankets found in those regions today. Some were entombed in a standing position. The good state of preservation of the stomach contents does not call for super-rapid freezing of the carcasses. Rather than food digestion, the mammoth stomach acts as a food storage pouch.

The mammoths became extinct when, at the end of the ice age, the climate in the region became more continental, with colder winters, warmer summers, and drier conditions. Frozen carcasses and many thousands of tons of bones and tusks of woolly mammoths are buried in Siberia and Alaska.

6,000-year-old decorative wood carving unearthed on Welsh mountainside

What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy.

Dating recent peat deposits (i.e., past ∼ yrs of peat accumulation) has emerged as an important yet challenging task for estimating rates of organic matter accumulation and atmospheric pollutant deposition in .

The process that turns bedrock into sediment or soil is called weathering. Weathering is achieved by both mechanical and chemical means. Gravity and associated processes of mass wasting see chapter 10 move the mechanical sediment to locations where it can be lithified into detrital sedimentary rock. Below are ways that bedrock is weathered mechanically. Pressure Expansion The outer layer of this granite is fractured and eroding away, known as exfoliation Think about the rock cycle studied in chapter 1.

Bedrock that is buried to some depth within the Earth is under high pressure and temperature. As this rock is brought to the surface by uplift and erosion, the temperature changes slowly, while the pressure changes immediately. The release in pressure causes the rock to expand, resulting in a series of cracks where the surface layers spall off. Production of these layers is referred to as sheeting. Especially in homogeneous rocks, sheeting results in a mechanical weathering process known as exfoliation.

A further extension of exfoliation is spheroidal weathering, where these homogeneous rocks weather chemically more quickly along the joints and produce rounded erosional features. Water can work its way into various cracks, voids, and crevices in rocks.

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